The Cartography of the
By Adam Jared Apt
By Adam Jared Apt
he cartography of the White Mountains began soon after the first ascent of what we now know as
Starting in the second half of the eighteenth century, maps of
Maps of the
The first three printed maps of the
For the next century and a half,
These suggestions for further reading are writings on mountain cartography in general and worthwhile studies of particular White Mountain and New Hampshire maps.
Ambroziak, Brian M. and Jeffrey R. Ambroziak. Infinite Perspectives: Two Thousand Years of Three-Dimensional Mapmaking (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999).
Apt, Adam Jared. “Harvard Astronomer George Phillips Bond and His Role in Mapping the White Mountains, 1852-1876,” in Historical New Hampshire, vol. 57, nos. 1 & 2 (Concord: New Hampshire Historical Society, Spring/Summer 2002), pp. 39-56.
Apt, Adam Jared. “The Manuscript Notebooks of George P. Bond, 1850-1853,” in Appalachia, vol. 54, no. 1 (Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, December 2007), pp. 66-84. With corrections to the previous article.
Apt, Adam Jared. “Tolerable Accuracy: A History of White Mountain Hiking Maps,” in Katherine Wroth, ed., White Mountain Guide: A Centennial Retrospective, (Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, 2007), pp. 170-196. A general history, but with a focus on the maps of the Appalachian Mountain Club. Two errors: on. P. 182, the reference to “the first party to ascent Mount Bond, in 1876” should instead read “1871,” and on p. 185, the reference to “camera [obscura]” should be to “camera [lucida].”
Bourcier, Paul G. History in the Mapping: Four Centuries of Adirondack Cartography: A Catalog of the Exhibition, June 15, 1984 - October 15, 1985. (Blue Mountain Lake, N.Y.: Adirondack Museum, ). Useful for contrasting a nearby mountainous region that was treated very differently by cartographers.
Cobb, David A. New Hampshire Maps to 1900: An Annotated Checklist. (Hanover: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1981).
Imhof, Eduard. Cartographic Relief Presentation, English version edited by H. J. Steward (Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press, 2007, first published 1965). The standard treatise on how to represent topographic contours, or relief, on maps, with some history of methods.
Machemer, Grace S. “Headquartered at Piscataqua: Samuel Holland’s Coastal and Inland Surveys, 1770-1774,” in Historical New Hampshire, vol. 57, nos. 1 & 2 (Spring/Summer 2002), pp. 4-25.
Mevers, Frank C. and Mica B. Stark. “The Making of the Carrigain Map of New Hampshire, 1803-1816,” in Historical New Hampshire, vol. 52, nos. 3 & 4 (Fall/Winter 1997), pp. 79-95.
Mudge, John T. B. Mapping the White Mountains. (Etna, N.H.: The Durand Press, 1993). A brief survey that fits the cartography of the White Mountains into the broad history of cartography. Includes a large facsimile of Leavitt’s 1871 map.
Philbrook, Douglas A. “The Grate Pass Powderhorn,” in Appalachia, vol. 36 (1966-67), pp. 24-37. The “Grate Pass” is Crawford Notch.
Ristow, Walter W. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985). Contains the best printed account of the work of Henry F. Walling.
Ruell, David. “The Bird’s Eye Views of New Hampshire: 1875-1899,” in Historical New Hampshire, vol. 38, no. 1. (1983).
Rumsey, David and Edith M. Punt. Cartographica Extraordinaire: The Historical Map Transformed. (Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press, 2004), chapter 4.
Smith, Alan A. “Mapping the Mountain: Ten Years of Cartography on Mount Washington,” in Appalachia, vol. 48, no. 2 (Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, December 1990), pp. 18-30. About the making of Brad Washburn’s map of the Presidential Range.
Smith, Alan A. “Mapping the Mountain: Ten Years of Cartography on Mount Washington, Part Two,” in Appalachia, vol 48, no. 3 (Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, June 1991), pp. 69-80.
Tatham, David. “Franklin Leavitt’s Pictorial Maps of the White Mountains,” in Georgia Brady Barnhill, ed., Prints of New England: Papers Given at the Seventh Annual North American Print Conference. (Worcester: The American Antiquarian Society, 1991), pp. 105-134. Includes a complete account of all the different versions, including much biographical material.
Woodward, D. “The Foster Woodcut Map Controversy: A Further Examination of the Evidence,” in Imago Mundi, vol. 21 (Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1967), pp. 50-61. The paper that definitively established the relationship between the two versions of Foster’s map of New England.